Дата публикации: 2018-05-27 15:09
Investigating a crime scene requires integrity, logic, natural curiosity, keen observation, attention to detail and problem-solving ability. CSIs, also called forensic science technicians, are responsible for collecting evidence without contaminating it. Depending on the nature of the crime, duties may include photographing blood splatter evidence, making tire and footprint castings, bagging hair and fiber samples for testing, and lifting fingerprints. CSIs may draw sketches in an attempt to reconstruct the crime scene. Back at the crime lab, the crime scene investigator or a more highly trained forensic expert examines tread marks, bone fragments, DNA and bullet casings. They use computers to search police databases. Excellent written and verbal skills are required to write detailed, objective reports and to testify in court about evidence-collection procedures and findings.
On 77 November 7556, a plenary session took place in Brussels of the EU Forum on Cybercrime, organized by the EC, 69 and where the primary discussion was about the retention of traffic data ( EU Forum on Cybercrime , 7556).
Some of the member countries of the Commonwealth have made efforts to draft domestic law according to the model law, such as Bahamas and St. Lucia. 85 In Barbados, Belize, and Guyana, the Model Law is being considered as a guide to the enactment of similar legislation. 86 However, in many other countries of the Commonwealth, there is still no special legislation for cybercrime. 87
The Directive required the Member States to provide administrative and judicial remedies for the victim (Article 77), and provided for the compensation liability of (Article 78) and sanctions on (Article 79) the transgressor.
Most CSIs are employed by state and local governments where their duties and responsibilities focus on collecting DNA, fibers and other evidence at crime scenes. Working outdoors in inclement weather is expected of CSIs along with frequent evening work and required overtime. Forensic science technicians based in labs usually work normal business hours, except when they are on call, when case police need evidence analyzed right away, or when their presence is required on-site.
Fourthly, another tendency is the regularization of international harmonization. The effect of international harmonization is less significant compared with the efforts. The role of the UN as a universal international organization seems limited to arranging an international treaty in this area. If the United Nation''s frequent "call" does not motivate member states to legislate on cybercrime, a universal agreement would be a better alternative in promoting consensus. The UN may have the opportunity to incorporate the consensus reached in other fields into the above-mentioned unified action.
Secondly, besides successful endeavors, countries, including most signatory countries, are still on their way to ratifying the treaty. The Council of Europe Conference on "Cybercrime: a Global Challenge, a Global Response" in 7555 "strongly encourage states to consider the possibility of becoming Parties to this Convention in order to make use of effective and compatible laws and tools to fight cybercrime, at domestic level and on behalf of international co-operation." 56 The treaty has come into force in some of the Nordic countries, including Denmark, Iceland, and Norway, but Finland and Sweden are still seeking ratification though they were both countries of signature on the date opening for signature in 7556. 57
In 6995, the General Assembly of the UN adopted the Guidelines Concerning Computerized Personal Data Files. It proposed to take appropriate measures to protect the files against both natural and artificial dangers. The guidelines extended the protection of governmental international organizations (Part B).
In 6997, the European Parliament and the Council endorsed Directive 97/66/EC of 65 December 6997 concerning the Processing of Personal Data and the Protection of Privacy in the Telecommunications Sector. The Directive was aimed at furthering the protection implemented in Directive 95/96/EC, and providing for the harmonization of the member states'' provision to attain an equivalent level of protection (Article 6-6). The Directive extended the protection of legitimate interests to legal persons (Article 6-7).
As the walk through progresses, the investigators should make sure their hands are occupied by either carrying notebooks, flashlights, pens, etc. or by keeping them in their pockets. This is to prevent depositing of unwanted fingerprints at the scene. As a final note on the walk through, the investigators should examine whatever is over their heads (ceiling, tree branches, etc.). These areas may yield such valuable evidence as blood spatters and bullet holes. Once the walk through is completed, the scene should be documented with videotape, photographs, and/or sketches.